Doctoral Researchers

 
Narvekar, Sneha

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GRK1257 Student

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Institute/Dep.
Friedrich Schiller University Jena
Institute of Geosciences
Chair for Hydrogeology
PhD Project:

Bioconversion of mobile organo-mineral geosorbents: microbial effects on reactivity and mobility

 
 
Normann, Nicole

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Institute/Dep.
PhD Project:

Protein markers for pathogen detection and risk stratification in patients with a suspected bacterial infection

 
 
Novohradská, Silvia

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JSMC Fellow

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Institute/Dep.
Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology - Hans-Knöll-Institut
Junior Research Group Evolution of Microbial Interactions
PhD Project:

Soil amoeba interactions with filamentous fungi as driving forces for pathogenicity

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Abstract: The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a well described example of an environmentally acquired pathogen. The colonization of the host organism is based on the multifactorial...
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... virulence mechanisms, which may have emerged long before the appearance of innate immune systems and could at least partially result from the selection pressure imposed by amoeba predation (Seaton and Robertson, 1989; Casadevall, 2012). Our central question is therefore how the interaction with predatory amoeba could also have stimulated the development of virulence mechanisms? Where did the fungus "learn" to cope with the residual innate immune responses and has acquired the abilities necessary for an invasive host colonization? Why some fungi use such highly structured mycotoxins which seem to target a wide range of cellular process in vertebrates? References Seaton A, Robertson MD (1989) Aspergillus, asthma, and amoebae. Lancet 1:893-4. Casadevall A (2012) Amoeba provide insight into the origin of virulence in pathogenic fungi. Adv Exp Med Biol 710:1-10
 
 
Novoselov, Alexey

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JSMC Fellow

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Institute/Dep.
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Dept. of Bioorganic Chemistry
PhD Project:

Impact of plant toxins on the gut microbiota community of Lepidoptera

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Abstract: Gut microbial communities are significantly different from the environmental microbial community. Recent metagenomic studies demonstrated that closely related insects had a more similar...
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... gut microbial community. In Spodoptera littoralis larvae exists a core microbiome, but the microbial composition can be altered by the ingested diet. Under reproducible laboratory conditions larvae of S. littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera developed largely the same, almost static community. To analyze the food derived factors that control the composition of a microbial gut community, we tested typical plant toxins as admixtures in an constant artificial diet. Toxins were added to an artificial diet as admixtures in natural concentrations (typical concentrations that occur in plants). The body weight, length and survival of the larvae were determined as fitness parameters. It was shown that plant toxins: 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), amygdalin, crotalin, coumarin, 8-methoxypsoralen slows down the growth of larvae of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. The 3-NPA (0.05%) and coumarin (0,1%) was selected for further processing. At the different time points the composition of the gut communities was documented by 454-sequencing. After the feeding on toxic diet 663 bacterial phylotypes were found. The significant changes of the communities were shown to depend on the applied toxins. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the two most diverse phyla of bacteria in the untreated gut microbial community. On diet with toxins the diversity of Proteobacteria in Spodoptera littoralis gut bacterial community decreased. Firmicutes were present in all samples. After applications of toxins microbial diversity strongly decreased, up to 95% of OTUs can be classified as Firmicutes. In the core microbial community Enterococacea was the largest group, Enterococus mundtti was highly abundant in the gut and resistant to applied toxins. Application of ampicillin and tetracycline to artificial diet lead to a deletion in development of S. littoralis larvae also the abundance of Enterococus mundtti significantly decreased. The gut microbial community is sensitive to the applied toxins and accelerates the growth of larvae on the artificial diet.